Equine Infectious Anaemia
EIA is an infectious anaemia virus that is caused by a retrovirus.
Some infected horses who carry the virus can show no signs of the disease and mares in foal have been known to not abort or pass the disease on to their foals.
Other Names - Swamp Fever
EIA is transmitted by biting flies such as horse flies and deer flies.
EIA is a notifiable disease and all cases must be reported. In many countries all infected horses are destroyed to prevent the spread of the disease from becoming widespread.
Clinical diagnosis by serology is the only diagnosis for EIA. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test or as it is also known the Coggins test is widely used.
There is at present no treatment for EIA positive horses and due to the high risk nature of the virus infecting other horses with EIA horses that carry EIA are put into permanent quarantine.
There is at present no vaccine available. The virus is endemic in the Americas, Russia, South Africa and parts of Europe.